Converting a bond is based on par value and the fixed conversion price that appears on the bond. The conversion price is not the price the stock is purchased at. So, it is unlike a “Stock Option”. The time to convert is the investor’s choice. An example:
A customer owns ABC convertible bond that is selling in the market at $1040 or $104, the common stock is selling at $54 and the conversion price is $50. The investor would like to convert, but will only do so when the stock value is trading above the bond value. “Parity” would occur when the bond and stock are equal. The first thing you must find out is the amount of shares the customer is entitled to. We get that by dividing the conversion price into the par value of the bond ($1000). $1000 divided by 50 equaly 20.
The investor can convert out of the bond into 20 shares of stock – no more no less. The stock is currently trading at $54, so the the stock value is found by multiplying 20 (shares) by $54 (stock value), which equals $1080. $1080 is above the bond selling price of $1040, so converting at this time would meet the customer’s objectives of converting only when the stock value was above bond value or “above parity”.
Pricing Convertible Bonds – The Convertible Bonds (CB) market is growing all the time. To date, over one trillion dollars worth of CBs are in circulation. Corporations are finding this source of fund-raising more and more attractive. And for different reasons, the buyers are finding CBs increasingly attractive investment vehicles.
There are few works on the subject of pricing convertible bonds. Most books discussing derivative products cover all details of pricing futures and options in minute detail. Convertible bonds and warrants are usually mentioned as an after thought in the latter chapters. This is the first book to address the very complex issue of pricing convertible bonds.